The Vijayanagara Channels (VNC) system is spread across three districts namely Bellary, Raichur and Koppal, and falls between Latitude 14°30’ to 16°34’N and Longitude 75°40’ to 77°35’E. The VNC System comprises 16 canals which were constructed during the Vijayanagara Empire about 400 years ago. Most of these canals are interlinked and have their own diversion structures on the river. The reported total command area of 16,241 ha has now reduced to 11,154 ha due to urbanization and other factors. The command area of individual canals ranges from 210 ha to 2,220 ha.


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Salient features of the Vijayanagara Channels

S. No. Name of the Channel Length of Channel (km) Crop area (ha) Offtake
Right Bank of Tungabhadra River
1 Raya Channel 27.74 2,855 Tungabhadra Dam
2 Basavanna Channel 16.50 1,447 Tungabhadra Dam
3 Bella Channel 5.50 741 Hosur Anicut
4 Kalaghatta Channel 7.020 349 Drainage channel
5 Turtha Channel 18.69 1,171 Turtha anicut
6 Ramasagar Channel 15.50 1,024 Ramasagar Anicut
7 Kampli Channel 23.550 894 Kampli Anicut
8 Belagodahala 11.220 328 Drainage channel
9 Deshnur Channel 9.03 815 Deshnur Anicut
10 Siruguppa Channel 10.85 1,344 Sirguppa Anicut
Left Bank of Tungabhadra River
11 Hulugi Channel 10.69 419 Hulugi anicut
12 Shivapura Channel 6.54 717 Shivapura anicut
13 Anegundi Channel 19.44 1,359 Sanapur anicut
14 Gangavathi upper Channel 9.00 1,363 Upper Gangavathi anicut
15 Gangavathi lower Channel 9.54 1,141 Lower Gangavathi anicut
16 Bichal Channel 14.50 276 Jukur Anicut
Total 16,241

VNC Feasibility Study Report (2016)


The VNC Feasibility Study Report (VNC FSR) was first submitted to KNNL/ADB on 19 October 2016. Based on the DPR and the assessment reports, namely, Initial Environmental Examination (IEE), Social Management Framework (SMF), Gender Action Plan (GAP), Resettlement Plan and Indigenous People’s Assessment, a VNC Feasibility Study Report was prepared and submitted.

The VNC FSR consisted of four volumes:

  • Volume 1: Executive Summary and Main Report
  • Volume 2: Initial Environmental Examination
  • Volume 3: Socio-Economic Assessment, and
  • Volume 4: Financial & Economic Analyses.

Revised VNC Feasibility Report (2017)

Based on the comments of ADB Mission of November 2016 the VNC FSR has been revised with more intensive field visits during which informal and formal interactions and focus group discussions were carried out at various reaches of the canals.

VNC Bid Document

The DPR Consultant submitted the modified VNC Bid Document containing updated BoQs and estimates revised as per the latest Schedule of Rates (SR). The bid document also includes findings from the MASSCOTE training programme organised for the KNNL Engineers by ACIWRM. Several meetings were held among the ICZ Munirabad, PMU and PSC in connection with the preparation of the VNC Bid Document. During the same time when the BoQs were being prepared, PSC used the opportunity to work on the Bid Document terms and conditions using the latest procurement guidelines of ADB, and submitted to KNNL and ADB simultaneously.

Based on the BoQs and estimates from the Detailed Project Report, PSC finalized the VNC Feasibility Study Report and submitted to ADB on Submitted on 07 September 2017.

The VNC FSR comprises the following:

  • Executive Summary
  • Vol.1: Main Report
  • Vol. 2a : Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Vol. 2b : Rapid Biodiversity Assessment
  • Vol. 3a : Poverty and Social Assessment
  • Vol. 3b : Social Safeguard Due Diligence Report
  • Vol. 3c : Resettlement Framework
  • Vol. 3d : Summary Poverty Reduction and Social Strategy
  • Vol. 4 : Economic and Financial Analysis

Designs and Main Report:

This chapter has also been revised subsequent to receipt of the modified BoQs and the DPR, and the consolidated estimates.

As part of the Feasibility Study Report, to begin with, an Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) was performed. The IEE was carried out as per the ADB Safeguard Policy Statement 2009 and Indian environmental regulations. This was followed by Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Rapid Biodiversity Assessment (RBA) as per guidance note of ADB Mission 17-24 November 2016 as described below. Through the screening process, the expected impacts of the Project on all relevant environmental components were identified. It revealed that of the 12 anicuts that regulate flow to the Vijayanagara Irrigation System, 9 (nine) have been built across river Tungabhadra along a stretch that has been notified as an Otter Conservation Reserve.

Social Safeguard Due Diligence report

This report has been prepared and shared with ADB consultant for his comments a couple of times, revised, and shared with KNNL and ADB as part of the revised VNC FSR.

Social and Environmental Safeguards

Field studies along all the 16 canals for social and environmental safeguards aspects have been completed, strip maps of all canals prepared, data analysis completed and report finalized in consultation with the ADB expert.

The Resettlement Framework

As part of the Poverty and Social Assessment reprot, The Resettlement Framework has been updated in view of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act 2013 (RFCTLARR Act 2013).

Poverty and Social Assessment

The PSA report has been revised in consultation with the concerned ADB expert and as per the guidelines of ADB. The Social Safeguards and the Due Diligence study, and the Resettlement Framework are now part of the PSA. In the preparation of these reports, the PSC team members surveyed all the 16 canals, conducted informal interactions and focus group discussions comprising farmers and women, and discussed issues and possible solutions. The team captured issues along the canals in photographs and inserted into the Tree Diagrams annexed to the VNC FSR. Mitigation measures have been proposed along all the 16 canals as advised.

Economic and Financial Analysis

The revised Economic and Financial Analysis has been carried out as per ADB 2017 Guidelines for Economic Analysis of Projects. As advised by ADB, each of the sub-projects has been analysed based on the modified DPR. The analysis reveals that the Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) of 9% is achievable both sub-project wise and total project-wise. All sub-projects are above EIRR 9% except for Anegundi which is 8.87%. The total project-wise EIRR works out to 14.82%. EIRR Sensitivity analysis reveals that even if the construction costs increase by 10%, or benefits reduce by 10%, or both construction and CAD costs increase by 10% and benefits reduce by 10%, the EIRR of the project still remains almost at 12%.